From Financial Times, Dec. 14, 201
. . . James Robert Liang, a VW engineer, in September became the first person to plead guilty to criminal charges, including conspiring to defraud US customers and regulators.
He agreed to co-operate with prosecutors, and Daniel Nixon, Mr Liang’s lawyer, described him as only “one of many people at Volkswagen who got caught up” in the emissions cheating.
“It goes to what was the very top of the company . . . This is not a case of two or three isolated engineers who thought this up on their own,” says Doug Parker, who led the Environmental Protection Agency’s VW probe before retiring in March.